Sports - Billiards.

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  • Billiards.

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    Sports - Billiards

    Billiards (fr. Billard, from the French. Bille - ball), sport game balls on a billiard table with a special wooden rod (cue). There are several varieties of this game. Sometimes before the player the task of the first to score in the pockets (special notches on the sides of the table), a certain amount of balls (or balls with certain numbers, or a certain color).

    Such games are played on the table, the board is provided with six luzami - two in the middle of the long sides and four at the corners. In other player must first dial a predetermined number of points for certain collision balls, in this case the game goes on a billiard table without pockets. Sometimes in games involving skittles. Hitting the ball, which is the purpose of the combination is always applied to the other ball (or just one, which is called "his" or "cue"), under which, in turn, is hit the cue.

    Using the machine in the game of Snooker.

    The most common types of this game in the world are carom, snooker, pyramid, pool. World Union of billiards (founded in 1902) and the European Confederation (founded in 1961) is carried out and the championship championships in various kinds of billiards.

    History of billiards.

    The first information about billiards belong to the 16th century. In Russia there was a pool under Peter I and became popular in high society and the people. Currently in Russia the most popular small Russian pyramid, Moscow pyramid, an American pool.

    In 1989 the All-Union Association of billiard sports, now sports billiards Russian Federation, a member of the European confederation. Honorary President of the Federation is the People's Artist of the USSR EA Bystritskaya. Billiards fond of Mayakovsky, I. Utkin, IE Babel, SM Budyonny, Mikhail Zharov, VS Vysotsky, T. Petrosian.

    Billiard equipment:

    1 Pool table.

    1.1. Billiard table for each game is different dimensions of the playing field, the height of the table, the coating material, the type and depth, some elements of Durga Wallpapers. Historically, the ratio of the size of the modern table is made of 1: 2, the measurements are in feet.

    2 Kyi.

    2.1. The structure of the cue (for example, for a pool cue) [1]

    2.1.1. Sticker. Made from specially treated leather bison, buffalo, elk. Is attached to the tip of the cue, and then adjusts to its diameter. Stickers rounded surface, "disheveled." This is done in order to chalk well stuck to the label.

    Mel needed to create friction, which is a prerequisite for the control pin, when the punch is not applied to the center of the cue. In other words, by using chalk, you can control the rotation of the cue ball both before and after the collision the cue ball and object ball. The quality and shape of the chips depends your game.

    2.1.2. Tie (glass). Protects the tip of the cue cue shaft from splitting and reduces vibration on impact. Typically, the tip has an internal thread, but beyond that is glued to the shafts, and then fit the diameter. There are two basic types of terminal. Let us call them "cap" and "through" tip.

    "Cap", as the name implies, completely covers the thin end of the scape, while "through" hollow inside and sticker directly concerned scape. Tip of the ivory is most often used in expensive, professional cues. Tip of phenolic resins and plastics is more common on inexpensive billiard cues.

    2.1.3. Shaft.

    For scape preferred material is a maple growing in cold climates because it has sufficient strength and elasticity and has a bright tone. To scape shown specially seasoned wood of a certain age in order to emphasize the density and evenness of texture of the annual rings. Such wood is subjected to a large processing before it becomes shafts. Length of the cue is different, the 1350 mm. up to 1600 mm. Shaft diameter typically 13 mm. and measured at the tip of the shaft. However, depending on the individual and the game can be varied.

    Shaft diameter does not change in the area 18-42 cm. From the tip, and then increases to the diameter of the tapered splice. Shafts differ in flexibility depending on the length and shape of the above cone. Short taper has less flexibility with its help more hard-hitting and vice-versa, long taper is more flexible and kick turns softer. Shaft affects the weight, balance, gaming experience and features a billiard cue.

    2.1.4. Joint. The joint is intended to join the parts cue collapsible and can be manufactured from both wood and plastics, as well as with the use of various metals; brass, bronze, steel, titanium, aluminum alloys. Joint should ensure a tight connection and centering accuracy of the cue. From the junction depends directly hit, because it transmits the force of impact from the horizontal bar to the shafts and, in the end, the cue ball.

    2.1.5. Threaded screw.

    Threaded screw is attached to the forearm of a horizontal bar and serves for a more reliable connection. The screws can vary along the length, thickness and depth of the thread turn. Wide screws can be screwed directly into the cue shaft which has an internal thread directly on wood. With finer screws require a special attachment.

    In principle, the screw is needed for proper mounting scape and the horizontal bar on a "tree to tree" that allows you to perform more than a mild shock. Special fixing, as a rule, has a protruding coupling nut concentric with the screw, countersunk in the sleeve, which gives impact toughness.

    2.1.6. Bush. The threaded bushing can be made of steel, ivory, phenolic resins and molded plastics. The sleeve is attached to the forearm and secures the threaded screw, thus stabilizing the cue shaft.

    2.1.7. Ring. Below the sleeve on the end of the joint scape usually mounted ring. They strengthen the joint and is often decorated with inlay. Rings are also often placed above and below the winding and the base of the sleeve.

    2.1.8. Forearm. Forearm is located between the junction and winding. Forearm can be fastened to the winding number of ways including threaded bolt which can also serve as a balancing weight. Forearm typically made from a carefully selected and the dried solid wood to impart strength. Forearm very often decorated inlaid, and the surface covered with resistant glossy polish to keep the wood from cracking and warping.

    2.1.9. Wedges. Wedges are the most common decoration. However, in addition to decorative functions wedges strengthen the forearm, reduce wear and improve the balance of a billiard cue.

    2.1.10. Inlay.

    Billiard cue often encrusted with rare woods, precious and semi-precious metals, ivory, precious stones, mother of pearl. It is very important that the inlay does not violate the structural integrity of the cue sheet and does not harm the game quality cue. However, since the materials for inlay differ greatly in weight and density, comply with these requirements are often not very easy.

    By a rotating end mill for wood carving and is the basis of a kind of "pockets" for the inlay. Then cue is processed manually, brought form "pockets" and relief carving. Fragments inlay adjusted in height and shape to the shape and depth of "pocket". This time-consuming and very precise work requires patience, a good eye and a steady hand.

    The end result of a good master is a work of art. Often this work can be brought to the required precision using machines with the CPU. The combination of skill and technology much closer to compliance with the requirements of the game and the beauty of a billiard cue.

    2.1.11. Winding. Winding - part of a billiard cue, designed to capture the player and, respectively, and having a special surface treatment - winding. Winding on qualitative cues typically made of leather or cork. The choice of winding material due to its mission - to provide a reliable grip and moisture absorption by hand. Winding also supplements the basic colors of the cue.

    2.1.12. Handle. The handle is part of the cue below the winding. She joins the forearm and often made of straight fiber maple appropriate weight and density. In some cases the handle make smaller diameter and coated hollow sleeve (or sleeves in the form of multiple rings) made of exotic wood species, cornea or ivory.

    Often the handle is also used to balance the weight adjustment cue, reducing or increasing the size of the internal cavity. Regardless whether the handle is manufactured from solid wood or hollow wood, its surface is covered with high-lacquer. Even in the repair of used cue handle varnished before winding.

    2.1.13. Sleeve. The sleeve is a hollow cylinder made, usually in exotic wood, which rests on a wooden base and forearm bears the wedges. Some artists made sleeve one-piece for proper balancing of the cue. Finish sleeves always emphasizes finishing forearm. Often the pattern sleeve represents a mirror image of the pattern of reduced forearm. The entire length of the sleeve is treated with high-polish.

    2.1.14. Cup. Cup strengthens the base of the cue and protects the lower end of the cue from splitting and mechanical damage, and also holds the bumper. The cup can be made of different materials (selection depends on the overall design style cue), which correspond to the destination cups - the protection of the tree and inlays, which are often located on the sleeve. Cups can vary in diameter and color, and may not be available on some cues.

    2.1.15. Bumper. Bumper often made of rubber or other elastic materials. Bumpers cup cue from bumps and dirt in contact with the bottom of the cue rack or floor.

    2.1.16. Paint. Do masters for the production of cues cue lacquer coating is given considerable attention. Quality coverage not only enhances the beauty of the cue finish, but also protects the cue from the adverse external influences. Good gloss coating gives the cue and increases its value.

     








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