Sports - Handball.

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  • Handball.

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    Sports - Handball

    Roots handball goes back to antiquity: reference to "grandparent" of the sport - vintage ball games hands - there are in the "Odyssey" of Homer and in the writings of the Roman physician Galenusa. In the Middle Ages the same games dedicated his poems Walther von der Vogelweide. Handball in its present form, came up with the Danish players at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as a replacement for the game of football in the winter. Unlike handball from football lay in the fact that he played in his hands, and each team consisted of 6 players and a goalkeeper.

    The date of birth of the sports ball games, registered in the international sports classification called "handball" (handball), is considered to be 1898, when the physical education teacher of a secondary school of the Danish city Ordrup Holger Nielsen introduced the lessons of physical training women's groups, the ball game, called "haandbold" ("haand" - the hand and "Bold" - the ball), which competed in a small field team of 7 people, passing the ball to each other and trying to throw it into the goal.

    Studies conducted in recent years, give grounds include the date of origin of handball to the earlier period. In 1890 the Czech Republic became widespread popular version of the game with the ball, named "Hazen" (throw, throw). The game came down to unregulated throwing and catching a ball in mixed groups without fighting. In 1917, Berliner Max Heiser of the two games was a new game for women called "handball." Nobody imagined that this game there is a worldwide distribution.

    In 1918, the international sports map clearly recorded two opposing flow of the game: Czech Hazen (in the east) and the German handball (north and west). In 1920, in Berlin, the first game in the Cup and the German championship in handball. And in 1923, introduced new rules of the competition. Reducing the size of the ball, the introduction of the rule of "three seconds" and "three steps" significantly helped improve the playing technique. In 1925, the first international meeting of the German team with a team of Austria. Germany lost with a score of 5: 6.

    Recognition of handball in 1926 international sport has given impetus to the development of the game in a number of countries. There are clubs, cultivating handball in Luxembourg and Switzerland, Spain and other countries. In 1928, Amsterdam was created International Amateur Handball Federation (IAGF), which operated until 1944. Its assets include 11 countries are actively developing handball.

    In 1936, handball was first included in the Olympic program. He made his debut at the XI Olympiad in Berlin, where the winner was the team of Germany. At the time of those games, the IV Congress IAGF, decided to hold a World Handball Championship in a 7 × 7 and 11 × 11 (number of players). First championships were to be held with the participation of mere men's teams. In 1938, Germany won the World Championship German athletes.

    A new upsurge in the development of handball began with the creation in 1946 of a new International Handball Federation - IHF (IHF). She adopted a program of action aimed at reviving the world handball, convened a World Handball Championship in the format 11 × 11 with the participation of male and female teams. In 1949, in Budapest at Women's World Championship was the strongest team in Hungary.

    In the future, the world championship held every four years. A total of 7 men and 3 women's handball championship in 11 × 11 format. In 1966 he took the seventh and last world championship in handball 11 × 11, will cease to exist in the rank of the international game, giving thus the opportunity to develop handball 7 × 7. In 1954, Sweden hosted the World Cup in handball in the format of men's teams. Won by the Swedes, and women held their first championship in handball 7 × 7 in 1957 in Yugoslavia. The first place was won by the team of Czechoslovakia.

    Handball in its current form has been returned to the Olympic program only in 1972 at the XX Olympic Games in Munich. The competition was held indoors, participated in these men's teams, and won handball players of Yugoslavia. Women's handball was first included in the program of the XXI Olympic Games in 1976 in Montreal. Brilliant performance of the women's team of the USSR in Montreal enshrined winning gold medals at the next Olympics in Moscow, has strengthened the position of the Soviet school of the international game.

    The emergence of national handball refers to the beginning of the twentieth century. For the first time this kind of sport in the USSR appeared in Kharkov in 1909. Ancestor of Ukrainian handball was a Czech game "Hazen" cultured society "Falcon" as a gymnastic game. Outstanding service in the development of handball in pre-revolutionary Russia by Dr. E. F. Maly, who in 1914 completed work on the creation of highly mobile and effective ball games and developed the first in our country, the official rules of Ukrainian handball.

    According to these rules, the game was a team of 7 players on the court 45 × 25 m, divided into three zones: the protection of the central field and attack. Area goalkeeper limited line shots on goal with 4 m, making a rectangle 4 × 8 m. Throws Ball performed at the gate width of 200 and a height of 225 cm. Game lasted two halves of 30 minutes. The main elements of Ukrainian handball entered the most important part of the international rules of the game, developed 20 years after the publication of the rules EF Mali. Ukrainian handball was the world's first complete version of the game sports orientation. The first official game of the national handball teams took place in 1910 in Kharkov, and in 1918 there was organized "handball league."

    The first reliable information about the early development of handball and handball in the USSR are in 1922 (then played handball 11 × 11). The first meeting took place in Moscow on pilot demonstration sites Vsevobuch. Was initiated by M. Kozlov - the founder of the department of sports games GTSOLIFK. The game with 11 players called "handball." It is mainly distributed in the Russian Federation, and the game with 7 players called handball. In 1928, handball was included in the I All-Union Sports Day, but his debut was considered a failure, and interest in the game down.

    Active revival of the game began in 1946. In 1948, approved by the new rules, which are consolidated for handball called "Handball 7 × 7". Federation handball USSR was named also in compliance with the Russian name. Since then, there was a mismatch of terms: playing handball handball.

    First All-Union competition teams of male and female teams cities of the USSR handball 11 × 11 held in Riga in 1955. Women's winner was a student from Kiev, among men - from Riga. In the period from 1956 to 1961, there were six of the USSR championships in handball 11 × 11, which played a role in the development of the game. Then it became obvious that the game is losing its position in the country and abroad, and has taken a decision to discontinue the USSR championships in handball 11 × 11. Since 1962, the USSR championship held only handball 7 × 7.

    The international arena men's national teams of the Soviet Union started in 1960, women in 1962. The first big success came to our rallying after a half dozen years. Women's national team became the winner at the World Championships in 1982 (Hungary), 1986 (The Netherlands), 1990 (South Korea) and 2001 (Italy), the Olympic champion in the XXI and XXII Olympic Games, won the silver award at the XXIV and XXV Olympics .

    Way to the recognition of men's handball was difficult. Our team won the silver medals at the world championships in 1978 and 1990 and the XXII Olympic Games. Became the owner of the gold medals at the world championships in 1982 and 1992. Won the title XXI, XXIV, XXV Olympics. At the Olympic Games in 1984, our team did not take part, and in 1992 performed the CIS team.

    The debut of the women's handball at the Olympics was held later the male - in 1976, in Montreal, Canada, where the rewards played 6 teams, as well as later in Moscow (1980) and Los Angeles (1984). In Seoul, 88, Barcelona 92 ​​and Atlanta-96 competed in 8 teams. In Sydney, Australia in 2000 and Athens in 2004 women's handball tournament consisted of 10 teams. A October 29, 2005 the Executive Committee of the International Olympic Committee meeting in Lausanne, Switzerland has allowed an increase in women's teams at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. Thus, in the Chinese capital in both tournaments - male and female - will be attended by the same number of teams - 12.

    Since the inclusion of handball in the Olympics, his popularity in the world has increased dramatically. Changes in the rules of the game sets the International Handball Federation (IHF). In Europe, the main governing body - the European Handball Federation (EHF). Since 1993, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the national handball Federation was renamed the Handball Union of Russia. Currently handball deservedly considered an athletic game, equally popular among men and women.

     








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