Sports - Bob.

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  • Bobsleigh.

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    Sports - Bob

    Bobsleigh (from the English. Bobsleigh) - Winter Olympic sport, which is downhill from the mountains on specially equipped ice routes on managed sleigh - beans. Bobsleigh is home to Switzerland. Here, in 1888, an English tourist Wilson Smith interconnected two sledges with the board and used them to travel from St. Moritz to Celerina located somewhat lower.

    There, in St. Moritz, at the end of the XIX century. was organized, and the world's first bobsled sports club, where they were developed basic rules of competition in the sport, and the crew sled then consisted of five people - three men and two women. Further, the number of crew members bobsleigh sled changed - two, four, five, and sometimes eight people.

    Bobsleigh has been extended in a number of European countries where the competition have been held, and then the national championship in this sport. In Austria, they are carried out since 1908, and in Germany - since 1910. The world's first special sleigh - "bean" were constructed in 1904.

    Sani made by standard design of all-metal body streamlined shape, mounted on two pairs of runners-skates. Front pair - moving with the wheel. Rear pair - fixed brake. Use double (deuce) and quadruple (Four) bobsled. The length of two is not more than 2.7 m, weight - not higher than 165 kg and the weight of the crew is not more than 200 kg. Length of four is not more than 3.8 m, weight - not higher than 230 kg, and the weight of the crew is not more than 400 kg.

    Bobsled is a glacial trough on the basis of reinforced concrete having different steepness twists and turns. The length of the route - 1500-2000 m, with 15 bends with minimum radius of 8 m, a vertical drop of 130 to 150 m.

    The length of the bobsled, elevation between start and finish, the number of turns and bends are not permanent. For example, in Lake Placid in 1932, the path length was 2366 m, elevation, vertical - 228 meters on the track was 26 twists and turns. In Lillehammer in 1994, competed in bobsleigh in 1365-meter track with a 107-meter height difference and 16 twists and turns.

    Technical improvement bobsleighs shall be based on the latest achievements of scientific and technical progress. However, for obvious reasons, it is limited by the weight and dimensional limitations established international rules for double and quadruple sled. Continue to the final results of the competition bobsled determined speed, chosen by the crew at the launch acceleration segment - before landing in the sled, at a distance of result depends primarily on the skill of the pilot - the helmsman of his skills on the most optimal path to get the route with the least loss of speed overcoming the twists and turns.

    Speed ​​bobsleigh sled during the descent along the route can reach 100 km / h. The International Federation of Bobsleigh and toboggan FIBT - FIBT was founded in 1924. Unites more than 50 national federations. Toboggan - common among the Indians of Canada bespoloznye wooden sleds that in a somewhat modified form were used as sports equipment. At the beginning of the XX century the official competitions were held on the descent from the mountains on the toboggan. Then the word is traditionally preserved in the name of the International Federation FIBT department for development and still bob in the world.

    Bobsleigh World Championships held in 1924.

    The program of the Olympic Winter Games bobsleigh been included since 1924. In 1924, the competition was carried out on four-sleigh in 1928 - on the Fives sleigh since 1932, except for 1960, the competition is held at two-and four-seater sleigh. Prior to 2002, competitions were held only among men. But at the Olympic Games in Salt Lake City (2002), women took part in the races double beans.

    Every room in the Olympic program of the country is no more than two crews. Places are determined by the amount of time the four races. In each race The order of the start determined by drawing lots.

     








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