Sports - Wushu.

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  • Wushu.

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    Sports - Wushu

    Of course, the first methods of battle came from the early methods of hunting, becoming the result of man's struggle for their own survival in a hostile natural world. But if we take action arsenal of primitive man for the original version of wushu, you have to agree with the conclusion: the history of martial arts, is comparable in time to the history of human civilization as a whole.

    That's how most Chinese historians claims, including, and most authoritative of them. But the assignment of occurrence of Wushu to antiquity does not correspond to reality, since the techniques of early hunter does not have anything to do with the martial arts that we see today - it includes not only combat, but also other aspects: ritual, health, psihoreguliruyuschy, mystical, and others.

    Initially, the concept of "Wushu" meant exclusively military training. In this regard, work with arms held in Wushu dominant place in comparison with the fist fight (tsyuanfa) or fist art (quanshu). Of course, in real battles quanshu could only play a supporting role, as the effectiveness of the protection with the help of the sword or spear was problematic.

    The main types of weapons used in martial arts to the present day, were formed in the era of the Shang-Yin (XIV-XI century BC. E.) - A halberd and Klevtsov, swords and spears, tridents and daggers. In the era of Zhou (XI-III century BC. E.) The main striking force in the battle was the chariot, so a fight with her could only lead long arms. Most convenient for the fight becomes Klevets (Ge) is a combination of spears and hooks on top of a long shaft.

    This weapon was effective for many centuries - it began to rotate, to strike with the shaft in the fall and jumping. Subsequently techniques with Klevtsov included in the program of combat training of Shaolin monks. Indirectly Klevets is a symbol of martial arts in general: the character "y" ("combat") in the word "wushu" consists of two columns: "zhi" ("stop") and "ge" ("Klevets"), that is, the original interpretation of the concept of "fighting" meant "the ability to prevent the attack Klevtsov."

    Trident (ji) originated at the turn of the Shang and Zhou Yin-based modernized Klevtsov and was a straight blade in the center and two curved crescent-shaped blade on each side. With the trident could cause stabbing and slashing blows, and hook the opponent's weapon. Also in ancient times very actively used axes (Fu). Gradually, however, a formidable weapon loses its practical value and turned into a ritual object or a mark of distinction - a different kind of steel tridents meet certain bureaucratic posts, and the primacy of axes found in ritual combat dance.

    If the development of a number of weapons going through the military class, the fist fight in the ancient times were mainly commoners - those who do not have the right to bear arms, or had no means to buy it. It is difficult to set the threshold at which a fistfight out of the fight turned into an art, but it happened, of course, in the era of Zhou. In the "Book of Songs" ("Shijing") mentions that worthy officer must necessarily possess fist art - so, it ceases to be a purely national phenomenon does not occur by chance, the term "tsyuanyun" ("courage in a fist fight") marked the system of unarmed combat used in the preparation of soldiers and courtiers.

    Form a complex martial arts were closely associated with ritual combat dance. Boy, is born out of the dance group acquired sacredness: a man identifying himself with the deity, turned out to be a natural way to organize the chaos, and thereby gained miroustroitelnye function. Interchangeability of the terms "dance" and "battle" is also due to the coincidence of sound indicating their characters - "y". Gradually stood out a special kind of dance - yy (dance-fight), his technique consisted of two sections - the hand movements (y) and feet (dao).

    In XI-IX centuries BC. e. the most ambitious of martial dance became a dhow ("big battle"). His warriors performed only as a dhow required excellent knowledge of martial arts: it involves a complex combat elements, such as the rotation of the trident, confusing many moving and jumping. Warriors themselves seen in a dhow, first of all, training combat system, a kind of Taolu.

    So, at an early stage of development of wushu are summed together the martial arts and dance, physical education and ritual action, and the fist art has not yet acquired the importance in the martial arts, which is prepared for him in the future.

    In the Qin (221-207 BC. E.) And Han (207 BC. E.-220 BC. E.) Fundamentally new types of martial arts without weapons. First of all, there were two types of combat - and tszyueli tszyuedi. The concept of "tszyueli" ("measure themselves") includes all the variety of methods of unarmed combat, combat with weapons and power events. Fighting tszyueli could be a free fight with no clear rules or view court festive events in which the event takes place.

    When Emperor Qin Shihuane tszyueli become an integral part of the mandatory training of soldiers. Each of them had to have methods of fighting without weapons, in addition to the ability to fence, fight on horseback or on foot. The most skillful fighters tszyueli Qin Shihuang granted important positions at court.

    Of ritual dances grew another fighting system - tszyuedi. The literal translation it means "clash horns" - the soldiers tied his hair in pigtails like horns that was an echo of the ancient rituals associated with hunting magic: the participants fighting dance put on a mask or helmet with the horns of a bull and attacked each other.

    Donning the mask was kinda incomplete conversion to the animal, whose power was transferred donned a mask. Unlike tszyueli in tszyuedi struggle was unarmed, was not used, and striking techniques. There is a certain similarity between tszyuedi and Japanese sumo wrestling, which makes it possible to suggest that the roots of the Chinese, at first glance, a purely Japanese martial art.

    II century BC. e. of tszyueli stood shoubo fight, which included throwing, grappling, breaks and beats. Shoubo has not been closely associated with the ritual celebrations, and was a real fight, in which the fighters were not restricted in their movements - the size of the site were arbitrary character.

    During the reign of Han Emperor Wu of the concept of "tszyuedi" was generalized to different types of martial arts - it included the different systems such as tszyueli, shoubo and shuaytszyao. Tszyueli at that time was the complete opposite shoubo, it was purely a ritual fight that looks like a play, based on - war dance yy. Shuaytszyao as shoubo to be a common struggle, which used the grips, methods of removing out of balance, throwing, tripping through the thigh and back hooks. Many techniques shuaytszyao were built on the principle of action of opposing forces.

    Standing Rules of the tournament did not exist, and the winner is the one who put his opponent into a corner, pinning him to the ground or making him pain hall.

    Actually tszyuedi based mainly on throwing technique. Subsequently, it was transformed into syanpu ("mutual collision"), which bore more ritual character. And it was not only the arts of the two fighters, but the whole theater of battle. In Sung era (X-XIII century) in 120 athletes formed a "shelf syanpu." One of them distinguished commanders, instructors and other characteristic of the army officials. Were introduced three categories of skill - the higher, middle and lower.

    In addition to the ritual battles in the imperial court three times during the year of the examination by soldiers syanpu. If the court competitions syanpu wore more ritual character, the annual competition, arranged by nation, were the prototype of the later contact fights, not so colorful and ritualized, but had actual practice.

    Fight for syanpu consisted of three rounds. Rules prohibit the making grabs by the shirt and pants of the enemy, but when striking could grab his hand, perform throws, to put accented punches and kicks. Rules allow execution choke holds, pressure on the sore spots, wrinkles joints. Based on the above set of techniques, many currently existing system of martial arts could be found in syanpu any of its roots.

    Among the many differences from its predecessor syanpu tszyuedi should distinguish two principal. Firstly, the existence of rules and certain arsenal receptions marked the line between ritual fight and controversial view of martial arts. Secondly, the principle of competition prevailed over the spectacular ritual deep, innate to this kind of martial arts.

    Already in the first decades of the Han era martial arts were familiar representatives of various segments of Chinese society. Commoners they helped protect their lives and property, Taoist pointed the way to achieve longevity and immortality, government officials helped to gain the highest wisdom. Martial art in the depths of the Chinese society, the alloy with the precepts of traditional philosophy, ancient magical practices and systems of healing.

    By the end of the III century BC. e. gradually formed the first set of martial arts, and is called - yu ("martial arts"). At the level of the court elite yu included mainly exercises with weapons and fight without weapons held in this complex insignificant. On the contrary, the common people in the villages practiced mainly fist art, then combining it with the methods tszyuedi, shoubo and shuaytszyao. It is this synthesis and formed the basis for the later art of boxing - quanshu.

    In the Han era of all kinds of traditional weapons in China are beginning to play a special role swords. Straight sword Jian called "Emperor of bladed weapons", "the patron saint of the short arms." The sword was associated with the symbol of imperial power - none Han Emperor did not appear in front of the subjects without a sword on his belt, which emphasized the militancy and the heavenly origin of the ruler. In Chinese tradition weapon was considered a living organism, the sword turned out to be a living extension of the hand - and the world considered as a whole, in which there is no separation between man and his sword, which he holds in his hands.

    Cheaper and more practical, but at the same time and heavier weapons were a sword dao - curved, single-sided sharpening. With it you can have in the battle to breach the armor of warriors. By the sword dao there is another type of weapon - a halberd (Dadao), which was an impaled on a long handle a sword blade dao. The universal nature of Dadao lay in the fact that it can be used both in melee and at range. During this halberd was nicknamed "the commander hundred kinds of weapons."

    In the III century BC. e. to use part of the term "martial arts", meaning in the translation, as the term "yu", "martial arts." But the concept of "shu" means the art of ritual, mystical, sacred. Hence, the martial arts have become aware of as a way to bring peace in harmony, combining various outside fighting form and rich inner philosophical and mystical content.

     








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