Sports - Figure Skating.

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  • Figure skating.

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    Sports - Figure skating

    Figure skating - Skating view, which is based on movement of the sportsman (on one or both legs) with changes to the sliding direction, spins and jumps. Includes single skating (men and women), fresh and sport dancing. Directs the development of the sport the International Skating Union (ISU), which was founded in 1892 and brings together 73 national federations of countries (2002).

    Olympic competition in singles and pairs are held in 1908 (in 1908 and 1920 - as part of the Olympic Games in 1924 - in the Winter Olympic Games), in ice dancing - since 1976 In every Olympic competition country may enter one participant or a couple; country athletes in the pre-Olympic year which took a 1-5 in this place at the World Cup, can be represented by three participants (in pairs), 6-10 - two participants (in pairs).

    Performances are measured at shestibalpnoy system: in the short program Evaluate eight required elements and presented the program; in any program - machinery and artistry; in the free dance - the technical mastery and artistic impression. Place each participant (pair) is determined by the absolute majority of the judges (an odd number).

    Discipline in figure skating:

    - Dancing couples;
    - Individual men;
    - Individual women;
    - Sporting a pair.

    Birthplace of figure skating - The Netherlands. It was there, in the 13-14 centuries. appeared first iron skates, which gave a powerful impetus to the development of the sport. The first club skaters appeared in England (Edinburgh, 1742), there have been developed and the first official competition rules. Europe's first international figure skating competition held in 1882 in Vienna.

    In 1892 was created the International Skating Union (ISU). At the same time the first of its Congress approved the rules for international competitions, the procedure for drawing the European championship. Since 1896 and the world championships are held as. The venue for the first official championship was Peter Burg. The winner was a skater from Munich G. Fuchs. In the early 20th century. Salchow, Lutz, rittbergera Axel Paul September invented their jumps, and skaters in gratitude, left their names in the names of the elements.

    Women's figure skating was formed later. Officially, it happened at the end of January 1906 in Davos (Switzerland). Compulsory exercises for women and men were analogichnpli but Skating women immediately drew the attention of high artistic value, plastics and muzpsalnostyu movements. Official Women's World Cup began with a 1924 From 1930 world championships in figure skating for women and men are held together in a week and the same time. Soon a pair (mixed) skating. International championship in Pair Skating for the first time has been played in 1908 in St. Petersburg, the winners were German skaters.

    The third type of figure skating - ice dancing - was born much later than in England. Only in 1952 in Paris for the first time the dancers played their awards, were stronger than all the British. The most popular in recent years, won the competition in synchronized skating. Widely spread the sport in Canada, USA, Sweden, Finland, England, France. Since 1983, Canada began to be held annually on the Synchronized Skating Championships.

    In 1988, these competitions were held in conjunction with the competition on the basic types of figure skating. Pair Skating competitions were held for the first time in Canada in 1914 and were held regularly until 1964, and resumed in 1981, leaders in this type of figure skating are the Canadian and American teams. The popularity of figure skating grew, and already in 1908 figure skating competition for the first time were included in the Summer Olympic Games in London.

    The first Olympic champion in figure skating in 1908 were M. Sayers (UK), W. Saphov (Sweden), Panin (Russian), and sports a pair of AA Hyubler - G. Burger (Germany). Figure skating included in the Summer Olympics in Antwerp (1920), it was subsequently presented to all the Winter Olympics. Outstanding success in the Olympic competitions have Gillis Grafstrom (Sweden), who won 3 gold and 1 silver medal, three-time Olympic champion Sonja Henie (Norway) and Irina Rodnina (Russia).

    At the White Olympics in St. Moritz (1948) is an American figure skater Dick Button literally revolutionized. It was with him in figure skating "registered" jumping in a few turns, and other acrobatics. Button literally flew above the skating rink. His reward was the Olympic gold medal in figure skating. Olympic championship was played in singles (male and female) and pair skating. In 1976 the Olympic program included ice dancing.

    Russian skating originated in 1865 This year, opened a public skating rink in th Yusupov garden on Garden Street (St. Petersburg), who from the first day was a training center for figure skaters. On 5 March 1978 it held its first contest Russian skaters. One of the most famous sports and public figures in the field of figure skating became VI Sreznevsky.

    Honorary member and a prominent figure in St. Petersburg "Societies and lovers bera skating" was Alexander Lebedev, who is called the "grandfather of the Russian figure skating." He became the champion pervpl unofficial world championship, held in St. Petersburg in 1890 In 1896 he began teaching job and became the first coach and teacher of th em NA Panin-Max omenkina, who won the title of Champion of Russia in 1901-1903. and at the Olympic Games in London ah (1908) became the first Olympic champion of Russia. Another youth sports idol of the late 19th century. A. N. Panshin - the first Russian champion (1897-1900).

    In 1920, organized the first competition on the rink racecourse Semenovski parade ground. Since the mid-1920s. the holding of regular championships in Moscow and Leningrad. In March 1924 USSR championship was held. The program of the competition were men singles and pairs of sports. Constant such championships began after 1936, a special section (later - a federation) of figure skating.

    Immediately after the war began to open skating school in Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk. In 1955, Moscow was the first post-war international figure skating competition, which was attended by representatives of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Poland and the USSR. A year later, the strongest skaters of the USSR for the first time after the war, took part in the European Championship, which was held in Paris. The following year, the anniversary was held European Championships in Czechoslovakia. The Soviet team for the first time took part in all sorts of figure skating.

    Modern figure skating includes four independent view and: figure skating (male and female), pair skating, dancing and synchronized sports skating. Each species is s about him unique. Pairs includes a mandatory, random and short program.

    The first of the Soviet figure skaters in the international arena were successful Nina and Stanislav Zhuk. During the 1958-1960. they performed brilliantly in the European championships, winning the silver medal. At the Winter Olympics in Squaw ah Vzpli (19bO) they took sixth place, but on the following games ah L. Belousova and Oleg Protopopov win gold medals. Since 1969, leaders in the pairs figure skating become Rodninai I. Alexander Ulanov.

    Within four years, they collected all the harvest gold hydroxide hell championships Heb ops and the world as well and s acre epili in hurry for the food used at the Olympic Games in C ah appor on (1972) .3atemv stv e qual partner and I. Po began long A. act 3 aytsev. Together they became double Olympic champion in Innsbruck (1976) and in Lake Placid (1980). In those same years, they head seven times on evyvapi title of European Champion and six times - world champions.

    At the Olympics in Sarajevo (1984), Olympic champions and steel shafts and E. O. Vasiliev. Double Olympic champions were Mr. E. horde s a and S. Grinkov (in Calgary (1988) and Liplehammere (1994)).

    At the Olympic Games in Nagano (1998) for the first time, one partner was able to win two Olympics with different partners (only I. Rodnina managed like). A. Dmitriev in 1992 became the Olympic champion in Albervippe with N. Mishkutenok. Three years later, he started riding with Olga Kazakova. This pair of the first approach won the European Championship, and in 1998 at the Olympic Games in Nagano -gold ah. Ten Winter Olympics since winning LA BelousovoyiO. Protopopov, local representatives of the pairs figure skating are unbeaten. Confirmation is to win Ye Berezhnaya and Sikharulidze A. at the World Championships in Helsinki (1999).

    Ice Dance - the youngest form of figure skating. Soviet athletes did not take part in it until 1965, quickly reaching excellence, our team became eligible for a traveling role. But the primacy of firmly held great English couple Diane T auler and Bernard Ford. After their ear, let him in 1970 LA Pakhomov, and A. Gorshkov rightly occupied a prominent place on the European and world championships, brilliantly won the title of the first Olympic champions in sportivnm ice dancing in 1976.

    Winning picked up the baton of Moses and A. Minenkov - pupils T. Tarasova, and then leaders came Linichuk and Karponosov - disciples E. Tchaikovsky. Both couples twice won the title of world champions and Linichuk and Karponosov in Lake Placid (1980) became Olympic champions, and of Moses, and A. Minenkov win bronze.

    3atem palm turned to the founders of ice dancing British T Orville D. and K. Dean. H Ashi pair NB e stemyanov a and A. Bukin, and M. Klimov and Sergei Ponomarenko won the second and third step of the podium. But already eaten eduyuschih Olympics ah in Calgary (1988) N. Be stemyanov and-A. Bukin won the evils of general relativity, and M. Klimov-C. Ponomarenko silver.

    Subsequent Olympic Games in Lilpehammere (1994) and Nagano (1998) Russian dancers do not pass their positions: two Olympics in a row won the Olympic gold medal P. Grischuk and Platov E., four-time world champions. At the World Championships (1999) won a victory Krylova and Oleg Ovsyannikov, silver medalist of the Olympic Games in Nagano. Figure skating is divided into: 1) the compulsory program, 2) a short program, 3) Skating.

    Compulsory figures called "school", it is emphasized that they are the alphabet of skating. In the 1950-1960 period. in the United States, Canada, France, Austria, Germany,

    Czechoslovakia grew brilliant group of artists single skating. Austrians Danziger and Schwartz, Brian Boitano of the United States, the Frenchman Patrick Pera, British J.. Curry and R. Cousins, untitled public favorite T olper Cranston of Canada - that no name, a legend. They are incredibly complicated technique and artistry perfected.

    For many years, our position in all international forums in skating left much to be desired. A pioneer in men's figure skating in the Soviet Union was S. Chetverukhin. That he managed to pervpl of our singles become a silver medalist at the World, European and Olympic Games in Sapporo (1972). "Prince of Ice" called his foreign journalists. The next generation has managed to win top honors. At the European Championships in 1975 for the first time managed to make V. Kovalev. A month later, in the championship of the world and forward Your eating Volkov. In 1977 and 1979. Kovalev became the champion of the world as well. At the Olympic Games 1976 ah he won a silver medal, and a year later at the World Championships in Tokyo proved that he is the strongest in the figure skating.

    By the end of the 70s. the arena overlooks one of the most talented athletes I. Bobrin. In 1981 he first became champion of Europe. At the World Championships in 1981 in the United States, he honorably defended the title of the strongest skater in Europe, taking third place.

    In 1988 the Olympic Games were USSR champion, world champion in 1985 Fadeev, who took fourth place, and a single skater from Odessa V. Petrenko, who brought the Soviet team bronze medal. Gold medal for the CIS team won Petrenko at the Olympics in Albervipe (1992). First time in history a single ski (after Panin) to the highest step of the podium stood a member of our team.

    In 1994 a second Olympic gold medal at the Games in Lippehammere brought the Russian team A. Urmanov. And in 1998 in the men's figure skating has a new leader Kulik, who won gold at the Winter Olympics in Nagano. In Salt Lake City, two Russian athlete - A. Yagudin and Plushenko Ye fought for first place and the victory went to A. Yagudin. He also became the second in the history of the national figure skating world champion twice.

    In 1960-70. leading role in figure skating played American. Skill P. Fleming brings to mind the legendary Sonja Henie, but the artistry has been linked with high, almost masculine leap technique. A galaxy of outstanding skaters in the GDR brought Utah coach Mueller.

    Naughty G. Seifert with dancing "servant boy" won in Europe and the world, but the Olympic champion was another star - Katarina Witt. Our girls lagged far until the E. Vodorezova. Under the guidance of coach C. Beetle it seizes sophisticated technology triple jumps and high quality rotations. During the years 1976-1983. Vodorezova raised several times on the European podium, and in 1983 she won a bronze award for the first time the World Cup.

    For the first time in the history of the Olympic Games bronze medal was won by the Soviet odinochnits K. Ivanova. In 1984 in Sarajevo A. Kondrashovavoshpav top six, finishing 5th and Vodorezova was eighth. After the success of the women's team Ivanova lost its position, why not a solo Russia started in 1994 Winter Olympics in Lippehammere. At the next Olympic Games in Nagano ah M. and I. Butyrskaja Slutskaya in fourth and fifth places.

    Successfully become a solo act, our European Championships. I. Slutskaya first Russian odinochnits won the European Championship in 1996 at the European Championships in Prague in 1999, a solo Russian Butyrskaja M., Yu Soldatov and Volchkov occupied the entire podium.

    In the championship of the world and in Helsinki (1999) M. Butyrskaja first in the women's figure skating won "gold". In Salt Lake City, IA Slutskaya won the silver medal at the very controversial victory of American athletes Sarah Hughes.

     








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